Android Architecture detail & Application Framework
Android Architecture detail is here
Here, Android operating system is a stack of software components which is roughly divided into five sections and four main layers as shown below in the architecture diagram.
- This provides a level of abstraction between the device hardware and it contains all the essential hardware drivers like camera, keypad, display etc.
- Moreover, The kernel handles all the things that Linux is really good at such as networking and a vast array of device drivers, which take the pain out of interfacing to peripheral hardware.
Libraries of Android Architecture detail
- On top of Linux kernel, there is a set of libraries including open-source Web browser engine WebKit, well-known library libc.
- Moreover, SQLite database which is a useful repository for storage and sharing of application data, libraries to play and record audio and video, SSL libraries responsible for Internet security etc.
Android Libraries of Android Architecture detail
- This category encompasses those Java-based libraries that are specific to Android development. Examples of libraries in this category include the application framework libraries in addition to those that facilitate user interface building, graphics drawing, and database access. A summary of some key core Android libraries available to the Android developer is as follows.
- app − Provides access to the application model and is the cornerstone of all Android applications.
- content − Facilitates content access, publishing and messaging between applications and application components.
- database − Used to access data published by content providers and includes SQLite database management classes.
- opengl − A Java interface to the OpenGL ES 3D graphics rendering API.
- os − Provides applications with access to standard operating system services including messages, system services and inter-process communication.
- text − Used to render and manipulate text on a device display.
- view − The fundamental building blocks of application user interfaces.
- widget − A rich collection of pre-built user interface components such as buttons, labels, list views, layout managers, radio buttons etc.
- WebKit − A set of classes intended to allow web-browsing capabilities to be built into applications.
- This section provides a key component called Dalvik Virtual Machine which is a kind of Java Virtual Machine specially designed and optimized for Android.
- Also, The Dalvik VM makes use of Linux core features like memory management and multi-threading, which is intrinsic in the Java language. The Dalvik VM enables every Android application to run in its own process, with its own instance of the Dalvik virtual machine.
- Moreover, The Android runtime also provides a set of core libraries which enable Android application developers to write Android applications using standard Java programming language.
- The Application Framework layer provides many higher-level services to applications in the form of Java classes. Application developers are allowed to make use of these services in their applications.
- Activity Manager − Controls all aspects of the application lifecycle and activity stack.
- Content Providers − Allows applications to publish and share data with other applications.
- Resource Manager − Provides access to non-code embedded resources such as strings, color settings and user interface layouts.
- Notifications Manager − Allows applications to display alerts and notifications to the user.
- View System − Moreover, an extensible set of views used to create application user interfaces.
- Also, You will find all the Android application at the top layer. You will write your application to installed on this layer only. Examples of such applications are Contacts Books, Browser, and Games etc.
- Application components the essential building blocks of an Android application. These components loosely coupled with the application manifest file AndroidManifest.xml that describes each component of the application and how they interact.
- Moreover, There are following four main components that can use within an Android application
- An activity represents a single screen with a user interface; in-short Activity performs actions on the screen. For example, an email application might have one activity that shows a list of new emails, another activity to compose an email, and another activity for reading emails. If an application has more than one activity, then one of them should mark as the activity that presented when the application is launched.
- Also, A service is a component that runs in the background to perform long-running operations. For example, a service might play music in the background while the user is in a different application. Or it might fetch data over the network without blocking user interaction with an activity.
- Broadcast Receivers simply respond to broadcast messages from other applications or from the system. For example, applications can also initiate broadcasts to let other applications know that some data has downloaded to the device and available for them to use, so this the broadcast receiver who will intercept this communication and will initiate appropriate action.
- Moreover, A broadcast receiver implemented as a subclass of BroadcastReceiver class and each message is broadcaster as an Intent object.
- Moreover, A content provider component supplies data from one application to others on request. Such requests handled by the methods of the ContentResolver class. The data may stored in the file system, the database or somewhere else entirely.
- Also, A content provider implemented as a subclass of ContentProvider class and must implement a standard set of APIs that enable other applications to perform transactions.