Classification: Computer Languages
Low-Level Languages [ Classification: Computer Languages ]
Characteristically, low-level languages represent languages that can be directly understood or are very close to machines. They can be further classified into machine language and assembly language.
Machine Language [ Classification: Computer Languages ]
Machine language truly a computer-dependent programming language, which is written by using binary codes. It is also known as machine code. Machine code encompasses a function (Opcode) and an operand (Address) part. Also, Since a computer understands machine codes, programs written by using machine language can be executed immediately without the requirement of any language translators. The disadvantages of machine language are as follows:
- Programs based on machine language are difficult to understand as well as develop.
- Moreover, A pure machine-oriented language is difficult to remember and recall: All the instructions and data to the computer are fed in numerical form.
- Knowledge of computer internal architecture and codes is must for programming. Writing code using machine language is time consuming, cumbersome, and complicated.
- Debugging of programs is difficult.
Assembly Language [ Classification: Computer Languages ]
- It is a kind of low-level programming language, which uses symbolic codes or mnemonics as instruction. Some examples of mnemonics include ADD, SUB, LDA, and STA that stand for addition, subtraction, load accumulator, and store accumulator, respectively. The processing of an assembly language program done by using a language translator called assembler that translates assembly language code into machine code. Assembly language program needs to translated into equivalent machine language code (binary code) before execution. Also, The advantages of assembly language as follows:
- Due to use of symbolic codes (mnemonics), an assembly program can be written faster.
- Moreover, It makes the programmer free from the burden of remembering the operation codes and addresses of a memory location.
- It is easier to debug.
The disadvantages of assembly language are as follows: [ Classification: Computer Languages ]
As it a machine-oriented language, it requires familiarity with machine architecture and understanding of available instruction set.
Also, Execution in an assembly language program is comparatively time to consume compared to machine language.So The reason is that a separate language translator program needed to translate assembly program into binary machine code.
High-level languages (HLL) developed to overcome large time consumption and cost in developing machine and assembly languages.
HLLs are much closer to English-like language. Similarly, A separate language translator required to translate HLL computer programs into machine readable object code.
Some of the distinguished features of HLL include interactive, support of a variety of data types, a rich set of operators, flexible control structures, readability, modularity, file handling, and memory management.
The advantages of high-level languages are as follows: [ Classification: Computer Languages ]
It is machine-independent.
Also, It can use both as a problem- and procedure-oriented.
It follows simple English-like structure for program coding.
Moreover, It does not necessitate extensive knowledge of computer architectures.
Also, Writing code using HLL consumes less time.
Debugging and program maintenance are easier in HLL.
The disadvantage of high-level languages is as follows:
Moreover, It requires language translators for converting instructions from high-level language into low-level object code.