Control of Water Pollution
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Water pollution can be checked or at least reduced by the following measures:
By proper sewage treatment:
The sewage should adequately treat before disposing of it in any water bodies. Sewage should give subsequent treatment before discharging into water bodies
Primary Treatment for Control of Water Pollution
To remove floating impurities, girt, inorganic particles, settable solids, etc. It mainly involves a physical method for removal of contaminants.
Secondary Treatment for Control of Water Pollution
Mostly aimed to remove organic impurities using mainly biological methods
Tertiary Treatment for Control of Water Pollution
Mostly using strong oxidizing agents to remove impurities, Example chlorine gas is used to remove the impurities remaining after primary and secondary treatment.
The industrial effluent should usually before discharging it into water bodies.
By enforcing stringent standards for disposal of sewage and industrial waste into water bodies
By prohibiting direct washing of clothes and animals in water bodies used for drinking water supply.
Pesticides and fertilizers should judiciously use to reduce chemical pollution due to surface runoff from farms. Less stable pesticides should be used.
Encouraging reuse of water
To avoid thermal pollution hot water should cool before releasing it into bodies
Advanced treatment for removal of nitrates and phosphates should adopt to prevent eutrophication.
Marine pollution can be defined as the introduction of substances to the marine environment directly or indirectly by humans, resulting in the adverse effects such as hazards to human health, obstruction of maritime activities and lowering of the quality of seawater
Sea is a significant sink or reservoir for all the pollutants. Pollutants can enter the sea directly from the outfalls and sometimes from coastal towns, but most frequently they come from estuaries. Moreover, Pollutants also reach the sea indirectly from rivers which receive many pollutants from their catchments.
Marine pollutants can be classified into six broad categories:
- Organic waste
- Heavy metals
- Pesticides and herbicides
- Radioactive substances
Causes or Sources of Marine Pollution
Some specific reasons pollute marine waters:
Moreover, The most public input is through pipes/outfall directly discharging waste into the sea. Sewage from the residences and hotels in coastal towns directly released into the sea.
Offshore oil exploration and extraction also pollute the seawater to a large extent.
Tankers transporting oil contribute to marine pollution significantly.
Ship accidents and accidental spillage of oil, other materials at sea can be very damaging to the marine environment.
Pesticides and fertilizers from agriculture, which washed off the land by rain, enter water courses (rivers) and eventually reach the sea.
Petroleum and oils washed off from roads normally enter the sewage system, but stormwater overflow carries these materials into rivers and eventually into the seas.
Effects of Marine Pollution
The shallow impact of marine pollution is on the aquatic ecosystem
Also, Disposal of a significant amount of organic waste into sea causes phytoplankton blooms or red tides causing discolorization of the whole area of water.
The oil spill has damaging impacts on marine and bored species, and salt marshes.
An impact on commercially important marine species, reducing the market value of sea.
Drill cuttings dumped on seabed create anaerobic conditions and result in the production of toxic sulfides in the bottom sediments, thus eliminating the benthic fauna.
Contaminated seawater imparts an unpleasant flavor to the fish and seafood and is detectable even at extremely low levels of contamination. Thus there would be a significant economic loss to the seafood industry.
Control of Marine Pollution
Sewage should give complete treatment before disposing of it into the sea.
Toxic pollutants from the industries should not discharge into the sea.
Dumping of toxic, hazardous waste and sewage sludge should ban.
Oil ballast should not dump into the sea.
Development activities on the coastal areas should minimize.
Runoff from the non-point sources should prevent to reach coastal areas.
Ecologically sensitive coastal areas should protect by not allowing drilling.