Introduction to Land Pollution
The land is considered as an essential resource of the earth as it is a source of many materials vital to man and other organisms and is a necessary medium for the development of agriculture, forestry, vegetation etc. So, today we are going for Land Pollution Effects and how we can prevent it.
The land is a significant constituent of the lithosphere; it forms about one-fifth of the earth surface.
The Lithosphere is also known as an upper layer of the earth’s crust.
It is made up of soil, minerals, rocks, organic as well as inorganic matter and to some extent air and water.
The lithosphere supports in living organisms, plant, and vegetation.
Lithosphere plays a vital role as it produces food for not only human beings and animals but also the decomposition of organic water is carried out by a host of microorganisms in the soil.
Increasing human population has put high pressure on these natural resources which are not available in unlimited quantity.
Vast tracts of land have been cleared of the natural vegetation for the cultivation of crops and plantations – bringing more and more land under the plough for the increasing human population, without applying sound ecological principles for the use of property in a profitable manner.
If managed efficiently, this natural resource has the long-term sustainable potential for food.
Soil or natural layer on the surface of the earth, consisting of clay, silt, sand, and gravel.
It is the environment for plant root system and soil organisms. Hence, it provides water and mineral salts to plants.
Hence, Soil or land supports the life on the earth as it provides us with water, food, and shelter.
It is an essential medium for the development of agriculture, forestry, vegetation etc.
So, the land is the primary constituent of the lithosphere, forming about 1/5thof the earth’s surface.
This natural gift of land is under threat from various activities like agriculture, industry, and transportation, which produce a significant amount of waste and different types of pollutants.
Land pollution or Soil pollution may define as the addition of substances to the soil which adversely affects physical, chemical or biological properties of soil, reducing its fertility and productivity. So, the land pollution is about degradation or contamination of the land surface of the earth.
So, land pollution damage the terrestrial organisms, reduce the uses of the land by man for agricultural, residential, recreational or other purposes and increase the risk of health hazards.
Most human or natural activities need space for their location and development. This space provided by land.
Most noteworthy uses of land are
Food production activities (agriculture)
Houses the living species, the water resources and raw material resources (mineral and ores etc.)
Industrial purposes – to install the different type of industries
Residential purposes – to build different kinds of domestic buildings
Commercial purposes – to build commercial centres
Transportation purposes – construction of roads, railway lines, airports, etc.
Construction and irrigation structures – dams and canals
Energy purposes – Thermal power stations
Waste disposal – Disposal of solid and liquid wastes
Though the pattern of land use varies from country to country; broadly, the model of land use on earth is :
Agricultural land 11%
Pastures and meadows 22%
Forest land 30%
Urban and non-agricultural land 37%
In India, more than two-fifth land is agricultural land. The pattern of land distribution in India is as under:
Agrarian land 43.6%
Permanent pastures and meadows 14.6%
Cultural wastelands 12.2%
Barren and in culturable land 8.4%
Urban land 5.3%
No information available 5.2%