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If a population of spices increases suddenly it called population explosion. Moreover, on the other hand, if the population of an organism decreases suddenly, it is called a population crash.
Effects of Population Explosion
Overstress of the natural resources: As a population increases more resources are needed to meet over basic requirements. To meet this requirement more and more natural resources like water, land, forests etc. has to be explored
Increase in demand for food will reach unpresidential levels
Overproduction of waste: Overpopulation results in the generation of more sewage, industrial effluents, and solid waste. Discharge of these wastes results in imbalance.
Other effects: unemployment, low living standards, pressure on agricultural land, low per capita income, high crime rate, environmental damage, migration in the urban area in search of job, Energy crisis, Overcrowding of cities leads to the development of slums.
Demographic Transition or Demographic Transition Theory
The theory of demographic transition describes the process of shift from high birth and death rates to low birth and death rates as a result of the economic development of the country, from pre-industrial to the industrialized economy.
Also, if birth and death rates equal a zero population growth rate would result which called “Demographic Transition”.
Thus, Population growth usually related to economic development. There occurs
- Typical fall in death rates and birth rates due to the improved condition of living leading to low population growth,
- The phenomenon called demographic transition.
Fig shows the different stages of the Demographic Transition.
Moreover, It associated with urbanization and growth which occurs in the following four phases:
1st phase – Pre-industrial phase
It characterized by high growth and death role and net population growth is low.
2nd phase – Transitional Phase
It occurs with the rapid industrialization of developing country providing better hygiene and medical facilities and food reducing deaths.
The birth rate is high so the population shows 2.5 – 3% growth rate.
Moreover, This Produces imbalance and country in this stage experiences and the large increase in population, India is in the second stage of demographic transition and experiencing heavy population growth.
3rd phase – Industrial Phase
There is a fall in birth rates thereby lowering growth rate. Here birth rates fall due to access to contraception, increase in wages, urbanization, increase in status and living standards, educations amongst women and other social changes. Population begins to level off.
4th phase – Post industrial phase
Zero population growth achieved. Here low birth rate and the low death rate observed. Also, Birth rates may drop below replacement levels as in developed country lead ingot decline in population. Also, Death rates may remain low resulting in an aging population growth as observed in developed countries.
Control of Population Growth
Literacy plays on important role in checking population growth. Improvement of literacy rate in villages and lower and middle class of people, particularly in women can control the population growth. Moreover, This has amply demonstrated by the Kerala state experience.
Living standards and employment
Employment will improve the living standards of people. It is the common experience that people with high living standards have fewer numbers of children and smaller family size. This is evident in western countries.
Incentives such as scholarships to children, subsidies, exemption from tax to smaller families, promotion in jobs, etc. should be offered. Two-child norm should advocate.
The government benefits should be allowed only for those having smaller families. Moreover, The families having more than the specified number of children should be denied of such benefits.
The importance of birth control, the significance of family size, and related information should effectively publish through various media, school books, and other sources URBANIZATION
Growth in the proportion of a population living in the urban area called urbanization. Also, According to the UN, an urban area may define by the number of residents the population density the percent of people dependent on the agriculture, or the provision of such public utilities and services as electricity and education.